West Bengal, state of India, located in the eastern part of the country. It is bounded to the north by the state of Sikkim and the country of Bhutan, to the northeast by the state of Assam, to the east by the country of Bangladesh, to the south by the Bay of Bengal, to the southwest by the state of Orissa, to the west by the states of Jharkhand and Bihar, and to the northwest by the country of Nepal. West Bengal has a peculiar configuration; its breadth varies from 200 miles (320 km) at one point to hardly 10 miles (16 km) at another. Its roughly 1,350-mile (2,200-km) frontier with Bangladesh, neither natural nor well defined, is of strategic importance. Although in area West Bengal ranks as one of the smaller states of India, it is one of the largest in population. The capital is Kolkata (Calcutta). Area 34,267 square miles (88,752 square km).
Relief and drainage
West Bengal may be broadly divided into two natural geographic divisions—the Gangetic Plain in the south and the sub-Himalayan and Himalayan area in the north. The Gangetic Plain contains fertile alluvial soil deposited by the Ganges (Ganga) River and its tributaries and distributaries. It also features numerous marshes and shallow lakes formed out of dead river courses. Indeed, the Ganges, which now runs through the narrow middle section of the state before entering Bangladesh, has been moving steadily eastward for centuries; very little of its water now goes to the sea via the western distributaries, of which the principal one is the Hugli (Hooghly). The state capital, Kolkata, is situated on the Hugli in the southern portion of West Bengal. Another important river, the Damodar, joins the Hugli southwest of Kolkata. The elevation of the plain increases slowly toward the west; the rise is most marked near theChota Nagpur plateau of neighbouring Jharkhand.
West Bengal’s climate is transitional between tropical wet-dry in the southern portions and humid subtropical in the north. Throughout West Bengal there is a pronounced seasonal disparity in rainfall. For example, Kolkata averages about 64 inches (1,625 mm) per year, of which an average of 13 inches (330 mm) falls in August and less than 1 inch (25 mm) in December. The state also is subject to considerable variability from year to year. In the sub-Himalayan region, rainfall is considerably greater.
The year may be broadly divided into three marked seasons—the hot and dry season (March to early June), with dry sultry days and frequent thunderstorms; the hot and wet season (mid-June to September), when rain-bearing monsoon winds blow from the southwest; and the cold (cool) season (October to February), when days are dry and clear and stable atmospheric conditions prevail. Average high temperatures at Kolkata range from about 80 °F (27 °C) in December and January to nearly 100 °F (38 °C) in April and May.
Plant and animal life
Forests occupy more than one-tenth of the total land area of the state, and the region as a whole has a rich and varied plant life. In the sub-Himalayan plains the principal forest trees include sal (Shorea robusta) and shisham, or Indian rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo); the forests are interspersed with reeds and tall grasses. On the Himalayan heights vegetation varies according to the altitude, with coniferous belts occurring at higher levels. The delta of the Hugli constitutes the western end of the dense coastalmangrove forest called the Sundarbans. A large portion of this unreclaimed and sparsely populated area bordering Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal has been set aside as a national park.
The forests are inhabited by tigers, panthers, elephants, gaurs (wild cattle), and rhinoceroses, as well as by other animals of the Indian plain, large and small. Reptiles and birds include the same species as are common throughout the Indian subcontinent.
The majority of West Bengal’s people live in rural villages. Of those living in urban areas, more than half reside in greater Kolkata.
Of the different religions, Hinduism claims the adherence of more than three-fourths of the population. Most of the remainder is Muslim. Throughout the state, Buddhists, Christians, Jains, and Sikhsconstitute small minority communities.
Bengali, the main language of the state, is spoken by much of the population. Other languages includeHindi, Santali, Urdu (primarily the language of Muslims), and Nepali (spoken largely in the area of Darjiling). A small number of people speak Kurukh, the language of the Oraon indigenous group. English, together with Bengali, is the language of administration, and English and Hindi serve as lingua francas at the national level.
Agriculture dominates both the landscape and the economy of West Bengal. Its proportion of agricultural land is among the highest of all the Indian states. Rice, which requires extensive irrigation, is the leading crop in nearly every area. Indeed, despite its relatively small size, West Bengal produces a significant percentage of India’s rice harvest. Jute, the second leading crop, is especially prominent along the border with Bangladesh and south of the Ganges River. Mangoes, jackfruit, and bananas are widely produced in the southern and central portions of the state. Wheat and potatoes are produced as winter crops throughout the south. The northern areas around Darjiling and Jalpaiguri have long been known for their production of high-quality tea. The Darjiling region also produces oranges, apples, pineapples, ginger, and cardamom.
The state’s most important industrial belt is a corridor extending for a number of miles north and south of Kolkata, along the Hugli River. Another significant industrial region is located along the Damodar River. There are steel plants at Durgapur and Burnpur and a locomotive plant at Chittaranjan. Haldia, the terminus of an oil pipeline from Assam and the site of a large oil refinery, also has a petrochemical industry. Other important manufactures include ships, automobiles, chemicals and fertilizers, wagons, electronics, paper, and cotton textiles. The state has a large number of small-scale and cottage industries as well. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the only mineral resources of West Bengal that sustained nationally significant exploitation were coal and clay for brickmaking.
Local river transportation was augmented by steam navigation in the 19th century—first introduced between Kolkata, Allahabad(Uttar Pradesh), and Guwahati (Assam). The division of Bengal in 1947 and the ongoing deterioration of river channels have disrupted river transport. Nevertheless, Kolkata and its sister port of Haldia, farther south, still handle international trade. West Bengal saw the inauguration of the railway system in eastern India in 1854, and local railway headquarters are now located in the state. Kolkata was the first Indian city to open an underground railway system. National highways link West Bengal with the rest of India, while state highways provide internal connections. There is an international airport at Kolkata as well as several smaller airfields within the state.
The structure of the government of West Bengal, like that of most Indian states, is determined by the national constitution of 1950. The head of state is the governor, who is appointed by the president of India. The elected Council of Ministers, with a chief minister at its head, aids and advises the governor. The chief minister is appointed by the governor, and the other ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the chief minister. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the statelegislature, which consists of a single house, the Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). The constitution provides for a High Court; its chief justice and judges are appointed by the president of India. Other judges are appointed by the governor.
The state is divided administratively into a number of districts. Each district, except that of Kolkata, is administered by a collector, who is also the district magistrate. Districts, in turn, are divided into subdivisions, each administered by a subdivisional officer. Units of police jurisdiction vary in area according to population. Most encompass several mawzas (villages).
With the object of developing rural self-government, mawzas were grouped together under elected local authorities known as panchayats. Established under the West Bengal Panchayat Act of 1956, panchayats are entrusted with sanitary and conservation services and with the supervision of the village police and the development of cottage industries. A three-tiered panchayat system, comprising several thousand village-level panchayats, several hundred intermediate-level panchayats, and more than a dozen district-level panchayats, covers the rural area.
Health and welfare
Medical facilities include hospitals, clinics, health centres, and dispensaries. Family-planning services are available in district bureaus, as well as in urban and rural centres. An employees’ state insurance scheme provides factory workers with health, employment, safety, and maternity insurance and also provides a free medical service.
West Bengal has more than 10 degree-granting universities, as well as engineering and medical colleges and many technical institutes. The universities of Calcutta (1857), Jadavpur (1955), and Rabindra Bharati (1962) are all located in Kolkata. The science laboratories of the University of Calcutta, the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, and the Bose Institute have made notable contributions to science. The Asiatic Society of Bengal, a scholarly organization founded in 1784, is headquartered in Kolkata. Vishva-Bharati University, in Shantiniketan (now part of Bolpur), is a world-famous centre for the study of Indology and international cultural relations.
Bengalis have long fostered art, literature, music, and drama. The visual arts have, by tradition, been based mainly on clay modeling, terra-cotta work, and decorative painting. Bengali literature dates to before the 12th century. The Caitanya movement, an intensely emotional form of Hinduism inspired by the medieval saint Caitanya (1485–1533), shaped the subsequent development of Bengali poetry until the early 19th century, when contact with the West sparked a vigorous creative synthesis. The modern period has produced, among others, the Nobel Prize–winning poet Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941), whose contribution still dominates the Indian literary scene.
Traditional music takes the form of devotional and cultural songs. Rabindra Sangeet, songs written and composed by Tagore, draw on the pure Indian classical as well as traditional folk-music sources. They exert a powerful influence in Bengali cultural life.
The theatre is popular, and performances—amateur as well as professional—are sophisticated. Yatras (jatras), traditional open-air performances that may treat mythological and historical topics or contemporary themes, are popular both in the countryside and in urban areas. The kavi is an impromptu duel in musical verse between village poets. The kathakata, a religious recital, is another traditional form of rural entertainment, based on folklore.
HistoryThe name of Bengal, or Bangla, is derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga, or Banga. References to it occur in earlySanskrit literature, but its early history is obscure until the 3rd century bce, when it formed part of the extensive Mauryan empireinherited by the emperor Ashoka. With the decline of Mauryan power, anarchy once more supervened. In the 4th century ce the region was absorbed into the Gupta empire of Samudra Gupta. Later it came under control of the Pala dynasty. From the beginning of the 13th century to the mid-18th century, when the British gained ascendancy, Bengal was under Muslim rule—at times under governors acknowledging the suzerainty of the Delhi sultanate but mainly under independent rulers.In 1757 British forces under Robert Clive defeated those of the nawab (ruler) of Bengal, Sirāj al-Dawlah, in the Battle of Plassey. In 1765 the nominal Mughal emperor of northern India, Shah ʿĀlam II, granted to the British East India Company the dīwānī of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa—that is, the right to collect and administer the revenues of those areas. By the Regulating Act of 1773, Warren Hastings became the first British governor-general of Bengal. The British-controlled government, centred at Calcutta (nowKolkata), was declared to be supreme: essentially, the governor-general of Bengal was the chiefexecutive of British India. Thus, the Bengal Presidency, as the province was known, had powers of superintendence over the other British presidencies, those of Madras (now Chennai) and Bombay (nowMumbai).
Britain was not, however, the only European presence in Bengal. The town of Hugli, north of Calcutta, was the location of a Portuguese factory (trading post) until 1632; Hugli-Chinsura (Chunchura), the next town south, was the Dutch post until 1825; the next town, Shrirampur (Serampore), was the Danish post until 1845; and Chandernagore (Chandannagar) remained in French hands until 1949.
From 1834 Bengal’s governor-general bore the title “governor-general of India,” but in 1854 the post was relieved of the direct administration of Bengal, which was placed under a lieutenant governor. Thenceforward, the government of British India became distinct from that of Bengal. In 1874 Assam was transferred from the charge of the lieutenant governor and placed under a separate chief commissioner. In 1905 the British determined that Bengal had become too unwieldy a charge for a single administration, and, in spite of violent Hindu protests, it was partitioned into two provinces, each under its own lieutenant governor: one comprised western Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa; the other included eastern Bengal and Assam. In 1911, because of continued opposition to partition, Bengal was reunited under one governor, Bihar and Orissa under a lieutenant governor, and Assam once more under a chief commissioner. At the same time, Delhi became the capital of India in place of Calcutta.
Under the Government of India Act (1935), Bengal was constituted an autonomous province in 1937. This remained the situation until the Indian subcontinent was partitioned into the two dominions ofPakistan and India after the British withdrawal in 1947. The eastern sector of Bengal, largely Muslim, became East Pakistan (later Bangladesh); the western sector became India’s West Bengal. The partition of Bengal left West Bengal with ill-defined boundaries and a constant inflow of non-Muslim, mostly Hindu, refugees from East Pakistan. More than 7 million refugees entered the already densely populated state after 1947, and their rehabilitation placed an immense burden on the administration.